The digestive system consists primarily of the alimentary canal, a tube that extends from the mouth to the rectum. As food moves through this canal, it is ground and mixed with various digestive juices. Most of these juices contain digestive enzymes, chemicals that speed up reactions involved in the breakdown of food. The stomach and the small intestines, which are parts of the alimentary canal, each produce a digestive juice. Other digestive juices empty into the alimentary canal from the salivary glands, gall bladder, and pancreas. These organs are also part of the digestive system.



Teeth (singular, tooth) are small whitish structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of tissues of varying density and hardness. The shape of an animal's teeth is related to its diet
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The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing (mastication) and swallowing (deglutition). It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva. The underside of the tongue is covered with a smooth mucous membrane. The tongue is utilised to roll food particles into a bolus before being transported down the esophagus through the use of peristalsis.

The pharynx is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus. It is part of the digestive system and respiratory system. Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue, the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or asphyxiation.


The esophagus is a narrow muscular tube about 20-30 centimeters long which starts at the pharynx at the back of the mouth, passes through the thoracic diaphragm, and ends at the cardiac orifice of the stomach. The wall of the esophagus is made up of two layers of smooth muscles, which form a continuous layer from the esophagus to the colon and contract slowly, over long periods of time. The inner layer of muscles is arranged circularly in a series of descending rings, while the outer layer is arranged longitudinally. At the top of the esophagus, is a flap of tissue called the epiglottis that closes during swallowing to prevent food from entering the trachea (windpipe). The chewed food is pushed down the esophagus to the stomach through peristaltic contraction of these muscles. It takes only about seven seconds for food to pass through the esophagus
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The stomach is a small, 'J'-shaped pouch with walls made of thick, elastic muscles, which stores and helps break down food. Food which has been reduced to very small particles is more likely to be fully digested in the small intestine, and stomach churning has the effect of assisting the physical disassembly begun in the mouth. Ruminants, who are able to digest fibrous material (primarily cellulose), use fore-stomachs and repeated chewing to further the disassembly.

It has three parts Duodenum, Ileum and Jejunum.
After being processed in the stomach, food is passed to the small intestine via the pyloric sphincter. The majority of digestion and absorption occurs here after the milky chyme enters the duodenum. Here it is further mixed with three different liquids:

After the food has been passed through the small intestine, the food enters the large intestine. Within it, digestion is retained long enough to a
llow fermentation due to the action of gut bacteria, which breaks down some of the substances which remain after processing in the small intestine; some of the breakdown products are absorbed. In humans, these include most complex saccharides (at most three disaccharides are digestible in humans).
In humans, the large intestine is roughly 1.5 meters long, with three parts: the cecum at the junction with the small intestine, the colon, and the rectum. The colon itself has four parts: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. The large intestine absorbs water from the bolus and stores feces until it can be egested.